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Friday, November 27, 2020 | History

6 edition of Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators found in the catalog.

Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators

recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

  • 321 Want to read
  • 5 Currently reading

Published by The Council in Bethesda, Md .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Electron beams -- Therapeutic use -- Congresses.,
  • Neutrons -- Congresses.,
  • Particle accelerators -- Safety measures -- Congresses.,
  • Radiotherapy -- Safety measures -- Congresses.,
  • Electrons.,
  • Neutrons.,
  • Particle Accelerators.,
  • Radiometry -- standards.,
  • Radiotherapy -- adverse effects.,
  • Radiotherapy Dosage -- standards.

  • Edition Notes

    SeriesNCRP report,, no. 79
    ContributionsNational Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Scientific Committee 60.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsRM862.E4 N38 1984
    The Physical Object
    Paginationvi, 128 p. :
    Number of Pages128
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL2857253M
    ISBN 100913392707
    LC Control Number84019848

    Likewise, since , scientists have used Jefferson Lab’s Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) to discover new details of the quark structure of protons, neutrons, and nuclei. Building on these discoveries, the Electron-Ion Collider will extend our knowledge and technological capabilities in completely new ways, with wide.


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Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Download PDF EPUB FB2

Carlos E. Cardenas, Paige L. Nitsch, Rajat J. Kudchadker, Rebecca M. Howell, Stephen F. Kry, Out‐of‐field doses and neutron dose equivalents for electron beams from modern Varian and Elekta linear accelerators, Journal of Applied Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators book Medical Cited by:   Accelerators operated below 10 meV do not represent a major hazard; however, as accelerators operate in the 10 to 50 meV range, neutron production may be seen.

The source of neutron production in the treatment machine and the methods of protection and measurement are exquisitely detailed in this by: Report No. – Neutron Contamination from Medical Electron Accelerators () Product Details. Sort Title: Report No. ISBN: ISBN   An illustration of an open book.

Books. An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video. An illustration of an audio speaker. Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators: recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators.

Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators. Bethesda, Md.: The Council, © (OCoLC) Material Type: Conference publication, Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

Neutron contamination in medical linear accelerators operating at electron mode January In book: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, IFMBE Proceedings, 39.

Cite this paper as: Expósito M.R. et al. () Neutron Contamination in Medical Linear Accelerators Operating at Electron Mode. In: Long M. (eds) World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering May, Beijing, China.

Get this from a library. Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators: recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.; National Council on Radiation. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more.

Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators: recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in SearchWorks catalog. NCRP Report No. 79, Neutron Contamination from Medical Electron Accelerators Purchase.

NCRP Report No. 79 is concerned with the potential for neutron exposure that results from medical equipment used to generate electrons is operated at energies above 10 MeV. Radiation Protection for Particle Accelerator Facilities: Report Neutron Contamination from Medical Electron Accelerators: Commentary Health Effects of Low Doses of Radiation: Perspectives on Integrating Radiation Biology and Epidemiology: Report Uncertainties in the Estimation of Radiation Risks and Probability of.

Zusammenfassung. In an electron accelerator a considerable part of the electrons strike atoms of medium or high atomic numbers. By the stopping of the electrons, neutrons are produced by absorption of the Bremsstrahlung due to the acceleration of the electrons in the field of rhe atoms.

Several investigators have pointed out that electron and neutron contamination from high-energy photon beams are clinically important. The aim of this study is. to assess electron and neutron contamination Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators book by various prostheses in a high-energy photon beam of a medical linac.

A 15 MV Siemens PRIMUS linac. High energy X-ray beams produced by medical accelerators are contaminated with neutrons as a result of photon interactions with the target, flattering filter and collimator.

It is important to evaluate the neutron dose to patients undergoing X-ray therapy and a number of studies have been conducted to determine dose levels in the patient plane. Neutron contamination from a 10 MeV medical electron accelerator was investigated by applying both calculations and measurements.

The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used for calculating neutron production and transport with an emphasis on the detailed modeling of the accelerator head and the treatment by:   The electron linear accelerators (linac) which are used in radiography and radiotherapy applications with photon energy over 8 MeV.

These photons are produced by bremsstrahlung, generated undesired neutron contamination in the therapeutic beam. This study is concerned with the measurement of photoneutron. At present, high energy electron linear accelerators (LINACs) producing photons with energies higher than 10 MeV have a wide use in radiotherapy (RT).However, in these beams fast neutrons could be generated which results in undesired contamination of the therapeutic beams (NCRP60, ; Poje et al., ; Schraube et al., ; Vukovic et al., ).These neutrons affect.

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The electron linear accelerators (linac) which are used in radiography and radiotherapy applications with photon energy over 8 MeV.

These photons are produced by bremsstrahlung, generated undesired neutron contamination in the therapeutic beam. This study is concerned with the measurement of photoneutron contamination. Simulation of neutron production at a medical linear accelerator Diploma thesis Institute of Experimental Physics University of Hamburg and University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.

(a) Electron linear accelerators for medical and radiographic purposes operating in the range 4 — 40 MeV are now widely accepted. The growing number of such machines operating above 10 MeV poses additional problems of undesirable neutron radiations and concomitant component activation.

Background: Photo-neutrons are produced at the head of the medical linear accelerators (linac) by the interaction of high-energy photons, and patients receive a whole-body-absorbed dose from these. @article{osti_, title = {Neutron production and leakage from medical electron accelerators}, author = {McCall, R C and Swanson, W P}, abstractNote = {For medical accelerators operating above about 10 MeV, there is an unavoidable production of photoneutrons which add to the head leakage.

The yield of photoneutrons produced by electron beams incident on thick targets has been calculated. Evaporation neutrons are emitted isotropically and have a broad range of energies. In this work, photo-neutron production from lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) were analyzed using CR SSNTD.

The 15 MV bremstrahlung x-rays from a Siemens Primus Plus medical linear accelerator was used as the photon source. Title(s): Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators: recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

Country of Publication: United States Publisher: Bethesda, Md. In the nearby future, accelerators could play a key role in power recently with neutrons and heavy charged particles. treatment purposes or for therapy with gamma rays, electrons and more field of applications, either for isotope production for diagnostic or It is probably in medicine that accelerators have found their widest inspection of goods.

Introduction Talk includes all accelerators producing beams (and associated equipment) except devices for medical therapy and physics research. Does not include internal beams (cathode ray tubes, x-ray tubes, rf tubes and electron microscopes or lithography systems).

Covers ~ 50% of accelerators now being sold. This industrial equipment has a huge impact on the world’s economy. High-energy (E > 10 MV) medical linear accelerators offer several physical advantages over lower energy ones: the skin dose is lower, the beam is more penetrating, and the scattered dose to tissues outside the target volume is smaller.

Nevertheless, the contamination of undesirable neutrons in the therapeutic beam, generated by the high-energy. protection from the radiations from high-energy electron accelerators. While many such accelerators are under design or construction for industrial, medical, and research needs, relatively few are in actual use, and these are mostly operated at moderate energies and limited outputs.

The problem of personnel protection is further complicated. In a medical linear accelerator, the primary and secondary collimators are generally made of high atomic weight metals. The energy of the x-rays generated by accelerated electrons exceeds the bonding energies of high atomic number materials such as tungsten, and lead in the structure of the components in the accelerator head, it causes the production of neutron from the nucleus.

Report No. - Neutron Contamination from Medical Electron Accelerators () Price: $35 / $28 PDF (AAPM Members FREE) Category: Reports This report addresses a problem encountered with the use of electron accelerators in radiation therapy.

The potential exists for the production of neutrons, in several different ways, when equipment used to generate electrons operates at energies above 10 MeV. • Again, accelerators for protons or ions “look” quite different from those that accelerate electrons, because electron beams are relativistic already at low energy • Modern proton linear accelerators are based on the Alvarez Drift-Tube Linac.

Alvarez was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to elementary particle. Medical electron accelerators generate spurious neutron radiations; in order to protect patients, neutron radiation levels must remain below internationally recommended values.

In the present study, bubble detectors were used to measure the neutron component in the primary beam and outside the radiation field for 8, 15, 18 and 25 MV photons. NEUTRON CONTAMINATION FROM MEDICAL ELECTRON ACCELERATORS active, Most Current Buy Now.

Details. History. Organization: NCRP: Status: active: Document History. NCRP RPT 79 NEUTRON CONTAMINATION FROM MEDICAL ELECTRON ACCELERATORS A description is not available for this item.

Advertisement. STAY CONNECTED WITH US Engineering Home. Number: Policy. Aetna considers proton beam radiotherapy (PBRT) medically necessary for the curative treatment of any of the following tumors.

Primary CNS cancers that cannot be completely resected; or Head and neck cancers (excluding T1-T2N0M0 laryngeal cancer) that cannot be completely resected; or Paranasal sinus or nasopharyngeal tumors; or Skull-based tumors, (e.g., chordomas or.

Introduction. Linear accelerators are often used in medical radiation therapy. For energies are greater than 8 MV, the linac output of photons is mixed with neutrons.[] The neutrons result from prompt photodisintegration of high-energy photons interacting with the material of the accelerator head.[] Specifically, the production of neutrons in the Varian Clinac C/C has been discussed by.

This work has focused on utilizing advanced filter materials that more effectively reduce fast neutron contamination in the epithermal neutron beam and at the same time optimize neutron economy. The INEL has also been involved in developing two concepts of producing neutron sources for BNCT using charged particle accelerators.

Neutron contamination from medical electron accelerators. Bethesda, MD: NCRP; NCRP Report No. 79; Ask the Experts is posting answers using only SI (the International System of Units) in accordance with international practice.

beams from medical linacs (Siemens 18 MV, Varian 15 MV, and Varian 18 MV) O. Chibani, C.-M. C Ma, Med. Phys. 30 () Photonuclear Interactions: further reading • NCRP Report No. 79, ‘‘Neutron contamination from. Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields.

Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and interactions with matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed for them.

The accelerator is intended for carrying out methodological investigations of detectors developed at JINR, solving applied problems with the use of electron beams, and implementing educational programmes of the JINR University Centre.

The accelerator will produce electron beams with energies of 10 MeV to MeV in a wide intensity range. 7. Xeutron protection neal' high-energy electron Page II: 1 1 4 4 (j G 8 10 17 18 20 20 22 22 25 23 2G 29 30 30 30 37 38 38 89 (i() 70 70 accelerators.

8G Heferences 8() vi Protection Against Neutron Radiation up to 30 Million Electron Volts I. Introduction 1. Definition of Terms.Per NCRP Report No.

79, Neutron Contamination from Medical Electron Accelerators, in a room with a poorly designed maze, the neutron capture gamma ray component may be 1/5 or more of the total dose equivalent at the entrance to the neutron capture gamma rays are of very high energy ranging up to 10 MeV.

The average value is MeV. Measurements made by one researcher on .(Neutron Contamination from Medial Electron Accelerators, ). These photo-neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and increase dose equivalent delivered to patients.

In this work, the neutron entrance dose for an 18 MV Varian Medical linac was measured using passive silicon p-i .